In my opinion, two major scientific discoveries that ought to have astounded evolutionary theorists but were ignored by them were Bruce Ames's findings that all mutagens are carcinogens and the discovery by Bishop and Varmus of oncogenes in normal Bilaterian cells. I will soon post an essay on the Ames discovery and I re-post here from 2012 my thoughts on the oncogene findings.
Earlier this year I submitted a little essay to The New York Times for consideration by their Op-Ed editor. When The Times didn't accept it I sent it to the Science Editor of The Guardian who also declined. Although the matter of hyper-fast neutrinos was subsequently resolved (the neutrinos were disqualified) my point remains valid: the discovery of cellular oncogenes ought to have shocked the evolutionary biology community, compelling at least a few of them to take a hard look at their theory.
The following is that essay. It's been slightly edited, mainly to include relevant links.